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AuthorsList author's last name first, followed by the first initial of their first name and the date of publication in parenthesis.

Single Author
Hemingway, E. (1926).

Multiple Authors
List up to six authors by last names, followed by initials. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and."
Smith, J. L., & Brown, M. (1997).
Smith, J. L., Smith, S., & Brown, M. (1998).
For more than six authors, list the first six and "et al."
James, J., Smith, S., Lynch, J., Smith, J.L., Brown, M., Grey, M., et al. (2001).

Organization Author
American Civil Liberties Union. (2003).

Unknown Author
Begin with the work's title. Titles are italicized. Titles of articles ar NOT itlalicized or put in quotations.

More than one works by the same author
Use the author's name for all entries. List the entries by year, the earliest published first.

Twain, M. (1946). The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. New York: Grosset & Dunlap.
Twain, M. (1997). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. New York: Penguin.

Two or more works by the same author in the same year
List works alphabetically by title. Following the date, in the parenthesis, add "a," "b," and so on. Use these letters in your in-text citations.

Lessig, L. (2004a).
Lessig, L. (2004b).

Books
Basic Book Format

There are four parts in the basic book format.

  1. Author;
  2. publication date;
  3. title, italicized;
  4. and publication information.
Author

Robbins, T. (1980). Still Life with Woodpecker. New York: Bantam Books.

Author with Editor

Kerouac, J. (2000). Atop an Underwood. (P. Marion, Ed). New York: Penguin.

Editor

Haycox, S. W., & Mangusso, M. C. (Eds). (1996). An Alaska Anthology: Interpreting the Past. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Work that is a part of an Anthology

This citation has seven parts:

  1. author of work, not the editor of the anthology;
  2. date of publication;
  3. title of the selection;
  4. "In" and the editor's name, followed by "Ed." in parenthesis;
  5. title of the anthology, italicized;
  6. page numbers of article or chapter; and
  7. publication information.

Dauenhauer, R.L. (1996). Two Missions to Alaska. In S.W. Haycox and M.C. Mangusso (Eds.), An Alaska Anthology: Interpreting the Past (pp. 76-88). Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Articles in Periodicals

**For articles on consecutive pages, note the page range, such as 124-137. For articles that are NOT consecutive, give all page numbers, such as 34-41, 73.

These citations have seven parts:

  1. author;
  2. date of publication;
  3. title of work;
  4. periodical title, italicized;
  5. volume, italicized, if needed;
  6. issue, if needed; and
  7. page numbers.
Monthly or Weekly Magazine

List the year of publication and the month. For weekly magazines, also list the day. For magazines with a volume number, include it italicized after the title.

de Zengotita, T. (2004, December). Attack of the Superzeroes. Harper's Magazine 309(1855), 35-42.

Quinn-Judge, P., & Zarakhovich, Y. (2004, December 6). The Orange Revolution. Time 164(23), 50-54.

Journal Numbered by Volume

These journals start numbering at page 1 in the first issue of the year, and page numbers continue throughout the year instead of starting with page 1 in each issue. After the italicized title of the journal, italicize th volume number, followed by the page numbers.

Egerton, G. (2004). Entering the Age of Human Rights: Religion, Politics, and Canadian Liberalism, 1945-50. The Canadian Historical Review 85 451-479.

Journal Numbered by Issue

This refers to journals in which each issue begins with the page number 1. After the volume number, put a period and then the issue number. Italicize the volume number but not the issue number.

Messud, C. (2004). Then. Kenyon Review 26(4), 34-45.

Daily Newspaper

For newspapers, page numbers are introduced with "p." or "pp." for multiple pages.

Bowlen, S. (2004, December 18-19). What in the World? Fisherman Lands Odd Fish that's Rarely Caught. The Ketchikan Daily News, p. B1.

Electronic Resources
Article from an Online Periodical

Use the same citation format as for a printed article. If the article also appears in the printed journal, a URL is not necessary, but include "Electronic version" in brackets. i.e., [Electronic version]

If there is not a print version, include the data accessed and URL.
Kilkki, K. (2004). Sensible Design Principles for New Networks and Services. First Monday, 10(1). Retrieved January 6, 2005, from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue10_1kilkki/index.html

For an article from a newspaper's website, give the URL for the site, but not the article.

Stout, D. (2005, January 6). Gonzales Disavows Torture as Confirmation Hearings Begin. New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2005, from http://www.nytimes.com

Article from a Database

Use the same citation format as for an article. At the end of the citation add: your date of access, the name of the database, and the document number (if applicable).

Uhir, P. (2003). Re-intermediation in the Republic of Science: Moving from Intellectual Property to Intellectual Commons. Information Services & Use, 23 (2/3), 63-66. Retrieved December 21, 2004, from Academic Search Premier EBSCOHost (AN 10818221).

Nonperiodical Web Documents

List as many of the follwing elements as are availabe in your citation:

  • Author's Name
  • Date of publication (if no date, use "n.d."
  • Title of document (in italics)
  • Date accessed
  • URL

Some Myths about Intellectual Property. (n.d.) Retrieved January 6, 2005, from http://www.ifla.org/documents/infopol/copyright/ipmyths.htm

Recommended Resources

Hacker, D. (2003). A Writer's Reference (5th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Citing Electronic Sources
http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite5.html


All information regarding APA citations is taken from :

Hacker, D. (2003). A Writer's Reference (5th ed.). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.

 

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