Using CBE (Council of Biology Editors) Style, Name and Year System of Citations
(for the Disciplines of Agriculture, Anthropology, Archaeology, Astronomy, Biology, Botany, Geography, Geology, Zoology)
Book. List the author, year, title, place of publication, publisher, and total number of pages (optional). Gershuny, G., and J. Smillie. 1999. The soul of soil: A soil-building guide for master gardeners and farmers. White River Junction, Vt: Chelsea Green, 173 p.
Journal article. List the author, year, article title, journal title, volume number, and inclusive pages. Add an issue number for any journal that is paged anew with each issue. Lyons-Johnson, D. 1998. Deep-rooted safflower cuts fertilzer losses. Agr. Research 46: 17.
Magazine and newspaper article. Add a specific date and, if listed, a section letter or number. Haag, E. 1997 March. Farewell to fallow. Farm Journal 121: E-4.
Internet articles and other electronic publications. Add at the end of the citation an availability statement as well as the date you accessed the material.
Writing in-Text Citations with Name and Year
When writing research papers using the Name-Year system, follow these rules*:
1. Place the year within parenthesis immediately after the authority's name.
2. If you do not mention the authority's name in your text, insert the name, year, and even page numbers within the parentheses.
3. For two authors, employ both names in your text and in the parenthetical citation for three or more authors, use the lead author's name with "and others."
4. Use small letters (a, b, c) to identify two or more works published in the same year by the same author.
5. In the case of reference to a specific page, separate the page number from the year with a comma and a space. Do not use a period after the "p" or "pp".
6. Long quotations are set off from the text in an indented block without quotation marks.
7. Punctuate the citations as follows:
Use a comma followed by a space to separate citations of different references by the same author or authors in same year or different year references: "Supplemental studies (Johnston 1999a, 1999b, 2000) have shown . . ."
Use a comma to separate author names accompanied by initials in citations with two or more authors" "Roberts, S.L., C.B. Rudolph, and A.B. Smith. 1999".
Use a semicolon followed by a space to separate citations to different authors: "Supplemental studies (Smith 1999; Barfield 1989, 1997; Barfield and Smith 1998; Wallace 2000) have shown . . ."
*2003 Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources; www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite8.html
Accessed 2007 April 5.
Using Name and Year with Bibliography Entries
Alphabetize the reference list and label it "Literature Cited." Double space the entries and use hanging indentation. When there are two to ten authors, all should be named in the reference list. When there are eleven or more authors, the first ten are listed, followed by "and others." If the author is anonymous, insert "[Anonymous]." Place the year immediately after the author's name.