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Scholarly Journals vs. Popular Magazines: 
What's the difference?

Bibliographies or list of references are
Usually DO NOT have bibliographies or lists of references
Authors are experts Authors are often generalists
Articles are signed by the authors Articles are sometimes unsigned
Audience is the scholarly reader such as professors, researchers, students Audience is the general population
Standardized formats are usually followed, such as APA, MLA, etc. Use various formats, which are often unstructured
Written in the jargon of the field Written for anyone to understand
Any illustrations support the text, such as maps, tables, photographs Often profusely illustrated for marketing appeal
Journal may have a serious, somber appearance, with few bright colors May have a bright, attractive cover, with many glossy pictures

Created October 2009 and modified from a handout created by the University of Michigan and from a figure published by Kim N. Cook, Lilith R. Kunkel and Susan M. Weaver.  "Cooperative Learning in Bibliographic Instruction."  Research Strategies"  Winter 1995: 17-25.


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