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1. Standard One Outcomes

Sample Outcomes: Standard 1.1

  1. Confers with instructors and participates in class discussions, peer workgroups, and electronic discussions to identify a research topic or other information need
  2. Develops a thesis statement and formulates questions based on the information need
  3. Uses general information sources effectively to increase familiarity with the topic and clarify terminology in the subject area
  4. Defines or modifies the information need to achieve a manageable focus, by narrowing or broadening the scope or direction of the thesis statement or questions
  5. Identifies key concepts and terms that describe the information need and recognizes related more-specific concepts
  6. Recognizes that existing information can be combined with original thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to produce new information

Sample Outcomes Standard 1.2

  1. Knows how information is formally and informally produced, organized, and disseminated
  2. Recognizes that knowledge can be organized into disciplines that influence the way information is accessed
  3. Describes the publication cycle appropriate to the discipline of the research topic
  4. Identifies the value and differences of potential resources in a variety of formats (e., multimedia, database, website, data set, audio/visual, book)
  5. Identifies the purpose and characteristics of information provided for different audiences (e., popular vs. scholarly, current vs. historical)
  6. Differentiates between primary and secondary sources, recognizing how their use, importance, and characteristics vary with each discipline
  7. Realizes that information may need to be constructed with raw data from primary sources

Sample Outcomes: Standard 1.3

  1. Determines whether the needed information is available immediately
  2. Makes decisions on broadening the information-seeking process beyond local resources (e., interlibrary loan; using resources at other locations; obtaining images, videos, text, or sound)
  3. Considers the feasibility of acquiring a new language or skill (e., foreign or discipline-based) in order to gather needed information and to understand its context
  4. Defines a realistic overall plan and timeline to acquire the needed information
  5. Decides when it is or is not necessary to abandon a topic, depending on the success or failure of an initial search for information

Sample Outcomes: Standard 1.4

  1. Reviews the initial information need to clarify, revise, or refine the question
  2. Describes criteria which influence initial information choices and decision-making with regard to the information need

2. Standard Two Outcomes

Sample Outcomes: Standard 2.1

  1. Identifies appropriate investigative methods (e., laboratory experiment, simulation, fieldwork)
  2. Investigates the benefits and applicability of various investigative methods
  3. Investigates the scope, content, and organization of information retrieval systems
  4. Identifies a user’s guide for a given information retrieval system
  5. Identifies what types of information are contained in a particular information retrieval system and the time period covered
  6. Demonstrates when it is appropriate to select and use a particular tool to fulfill the information need
  7. Selects appropriate means for recording or saving the desired information (e.printing, saving to diskette, exporting to bibliographic manager software)

Sample Outcomes: Standard 2.2

  1. Develops a research plan appropriate to the investigative method, modifying it as new insights are gained
  2. Identifies keywords, synonyms and related terms for the information need
  3. Demonstrates an understanding of the concept of browsing and browses indexes to identify appropriate search terms
  4. Demonstrates an understanding of the concept of keyword searching and uses it appropriately and effectively to develop more efficient search strategies
  5. Explains what controlled vocabulary is and why it is used
  6. Identifies and uses controlled vocabulary specific to an information retrieval source
  7. Understands that different terminology for the same concept may be used in general and subject-specific sources or even within different subject-specific sources
  8. Constructs a search strategy using appropriate commands for the information retrieval system selected (e., Boolean and proximity operators, truncation, wildcards, nesting, +/- symbols, quotation marks; tables of contents and indexes for books)
  9. Implements search strategies in various information retrieval systems using different user interfaces and search engines, with different command languages, protocols, and search parameters appropriate to the system

Sample Outcomes: Standard 2.3

  1. Uses various search systems to retrieve information in a variety of formats
  2. Uses various classification schemes (call number systems), catalogs, or indexes to locate information resources within the library
  3. Uses specialized online or in person services available at the institution to retrieve information needed (e., interlibrary loan/document delivery, professional associations, institutional research offices, community resources, experts and practitioners)
  4. Uses surveys, letters, interviews, and other forms of inquiry to retrieve primary information
  5. Uses the website of an organization, institution, library, or community to locate relevant information

Sample Outcomes: Standard 2.4

  1. Assesses the quantity, quality, and relevance of the search results by examining elements of the citation and assessing the quality using criteria such as source, currency, authorship, abstract, format, etc.
  2. Identifies gaps in the information retrieved and determines if the search strategy should be revised
  3. Repeats the search using the revised strategy as necessary

Sample Outcomes: Standard 2.5

  1. Selects among various technologies the most appropriate one for the task of extracting the needed information (e.Find and copy/paste software functions, photocopier, scanner, audio/visual equipment)
  2. Creates a system for organizing information
  3. Differentiates between the types of sources cited and understands the elements and correct syntax of a citation for a wide range of resources
  4. Demonstrates an understanding that citation styles vary by discipline and publication
  5. Decodes citation information correctly to determine whether an item is available locally and if so, locates it
  6. Records all pertinent citation information for future reference
  7. Uses various technologies to manage the information selected and organized

3. Standard Three Outcomes

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.1

  1. Reads the text and selects main ideas
  2. Restates textual concepts in his/her own words and selects data accurately
  3. Identifies verbatim material that can then be appropriately quoted

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.2

  1. Examines and compares information from various sources in order to evaluate its reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and point of view or bias
  2. Applies evaluative criteria to the information and its source (’s expertise, publisher’s reputation, currency and type of publication, sponsorship, bias)
  3. Searches for independent verification or corroboration of the accuracy, completeness, and interpretation of data or representation of facts
  4. Analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments or methods
  5. Recognizes prejudice, deception, or manipulation
  6. Recognizes the cultural, physical, or other context within which the information was created and understands the impact of context on interpretation of the information

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.3

  1. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts and combines them into potentially useful primary statements with supporting evidence
  2. Extends initial synthesis, when possible, at a higher level of abstraction to construct new hypotheses that may require additional information
  3. Utilizes computer and other technologies (e.spreadsheets, databases, multimedia, and audio or visual equipment) to study the interaction of ideas and other phenomena

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.4

  1. Determines whether information satisfies the research or other information need
  2. Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether the information contradicts or verifies information used from other sources
  3. Draws conclusions based upon information gathered
    Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques (e., simulators, experiments)
  4. Determines probable accuracy by questioning the source of the data, the limitations of the information gathering tools or strategies, and the reasonableness of the conclusions
  5. Determines when information on a topic may not be reliable if retrieved by less authoritative tools (e.Web search engine)
  6. Compares new information with authoritative sources to determine if conclusions or data is reliable
  7. Integrates new information with previous information or knowledge
    Applies established evaluation criteria to decide which information sources are most appropriate

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.5

  1. Investigates differing viewpoints encountered in the literature
  2. Determines whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints encountered

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.6

  1. Participates in classroom and other discussions
  2. Participates in class-sponsored electronic communication forums designed to encourage discourse on the topic (e., email, bulletin boards, chat rooms)
  3. Seeks expert opinion through a variety of mechanisms (e., interviews, email, listservs)

Sample Outcomes: Standard 3.7

  1. Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if additional information is needed
  2. Reviews search strategy and incorporates additional concepts as necessary
  3. Demonstrates how searches may be limited or expanded by modifying search terminology or logic
  4. Reviews information retrieval sources used and expands information retrieval to include others as needed (e.reference lists, works cited, online links, footnotes)

Sample Outcomes: Standard 4.1

  1. Organizes the content in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the product or performance (e.outlines, drafts, storyboards)
  2. Articulates knowledge and skills transferred from prior experiences to planning and creating the product or performance
  3. Integrates the new and prior information, including quotations and paraphrasings, in a manner that supports the purposes of the product or performance
  4. Manipulates digital text, images, and data, as needed, transferring them from their original locations and formats to a new context

4. Standard Four Outcomes

Sample Outcomes: Standard 4.1

  1. Organizes the content in a manner that supports the purposes and format of the product or performance (e.outlines, drafts, storyboards)
  2. Articulates knowledge and skills transferred from prior experiences to planning and creating the product or performance
  3. Integrates the new and prior information, including quotations and paraphrasings, in a manner that supports the purposes of the product or performance
  4. Manipulates digital text, images, and data, as needed, transferring them from their original locations and formats to a new context

Sample Outcomes: Standard 4.2

  1. Maintains a journal or log of activities related to the information seeking, evaluating, and communicating process
  2. Reflects on past successes, failures, and alternative strategies

Sample Outcomes: Standard 4.3

  1. Chooses a communication medium and format that best supports the purposes of the product or performance and the intended audience
  2. Uses a range of information technology applications to create the product or performance
  3. Incorporates principles of design and communication
  4. Communicates clearly and with a style that supports the purposes of the intended audience

5. Standard Five Outcomes

Sample Outcomes: Standard 5.1

  1. Identifies and discusses issues related to privacy and security in both the print and electronic environments
  2. Identifies and discusses issues related to free vs. fee-based access to information
  3. Demonstrates an understanding that Web-accessible resources may be either free or fee-based and licensed
  4. Describes how the terms/conditions of subscriptions or licenses may limit uses of information to a particular clientele or location
  5. Describes the difference between search results obtained using a Web search engine (e.Yahoo, Google) and a library-provided search tool (e.catalog, Web-based periodical index or electronic journal)
  6. Identifies and discusses issues related to censorship and freedom of speech
  7. Demonstrates an understanding of the fair-use limitations for incorporating copyrighted materials into new works (e.papers, assignments, presentations, websites)
  8. Applies appropriate controls for the electronic reproduction and display of copyrighted materials
  9. Understands how copyright is established and protected as well as the rationale for it
  10. Knows how to determine ownership of copyright and apply for permissions and/or properly apply attribution

Sample Outcomes: Standard 5.2

  1. Participates in electronic discussions following accepted practices (e."Netiquette")
  2. Uses approved passwords and other forms of ID for access to information resources
  3. Complies with institutional policies on access to information resources
  4. Preserves the integrity of information resources, equipment, systems and facilities
  5. Legally obtains, stores, and disseminates text, data, images, or sounds
  6. Demonstrates an understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and does not represent work attributable to others as his/her own
  7. Demonstrates an understanding of institutional policies related to human subjects research

Sample Outcomes: Standard 5.3

  1. Selects an appropriate documentation style and uses it consistently to cite sources
  2. Demonstrates an understanding that appropriate documentation style may vary by discipline (e.MLA for English, APA for psychology)
  3. Identifies citation elements for information sources in different formats (, article, chapter, audiofile, TV program, Web page, interview) and incorporates the appropriate elements in the correct syntax for a particular documentation style
  4. Posts permission-granted notices, as needed, for copyrighted material

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